Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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September 2016

Varenicline for smoking cessation and reduction in people with severe mental illnesses: systematic review and meta-analysis

Varenicline appears to be significantly more effective than placebo for smoking cessation and reduction in people with severe mental illness, with no clear evidence of increased risk of psychiatric adverse events.

Link to Abstract

A mixed-method systematic review and meta-analysis of mental health professionals' attitudes toward smoking and smoking cessation among people with mental illnesses

A significant proportion of mental health professionals hold attitudes and misconceptions that may undermine the delivery of smoking cessation interventions.

Link to Abstract

The indirect effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on alcohol problems in adulthood through unique facets of impulsivity

Elevated levels of emotional impulsivity (negative/positive urgency) may be what puts children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at increased risk for alcohol problems in adulthood.

Link to Abstract

Developing a social practice-based typology of British drinking culture in 2009–2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis

Eight types of drinking situation in Great Britain can be identified: mixed -location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get-together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%).

Link to Abstract

Risk of heavy drinking among sexual minority adolescents: indirect pathways through sexual orientation-related victimization and affiliation with substance-using peers

Sexual minority adolescents in the US appear to exhibit increased heavy episodic drinking via an indirect socialization pathway, including affiliations with substance-using peers and sexual minority-related victimization.

Link to Abstract

Understanding trends in Australian alcohol consumption—an age–period–cohort model

The overall decline in drinking in Australia during the past decade is due mainly to less drinking among people in their teens and early twenties.

Link to Abstract

An economic evaluation of contingency management for completion of hepatitis B vaccination in those on treatment for opiate dependence

Using financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost-effective use of health-care resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%.

Link to Abstract

The toxicology of heroin-related death: estimating survival times

In heroin-related deaths in Sydney, Australia during 2013 and 2014, 6-monoacetyl morphine (6MAM) was present in the blood in <50% of cases, suggesting that in >50% of those fatalities, survival time exceeded 20–30 minutes, giving sufficient time to intervene.

Link to Abstract

‘Maybe they should regulate them quite strictly until they know the true dangers’: a focus group study exploring UK adolescents’ views on e-cigarette regulation

In focus group discussions, a sample of UK adolescents exposed to particular communications about e-cigarettes supported strict regulation of e-cigarettes, including banning sales to minors and use in indoor public areas.

Link to Abstract

Implications of gambling problems for family and interpersonal adjustment: results from the Quinte Longitudinal Study

At-risk and problem gambling may be associated with concurrent and near-term future decreases in social functioning but possibly not longer-term trajectories in social functioning.

Link to Abstract

Which measures of cigarette dependence are predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy? Analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial

Four common measures of nicotine dependence (number of cigarettes per day, Fagerström Test score, frequency of urges, level of expired CO) predict short-term smoking abstinence during pregnancy and at end of pregnancy with similar predictive validity.

Link to Abstract

Motivating parents of kids with asthma to quit smoking: the effect of the teachable moment and increasing intervention intensity using a longitudinal randomized trial design

Parents who smoke whose children have asthma are more likely to quit smoking after receiving motivational smoking cessation counselling following a teachable moment, such as witnessing their child experience an asthma attack).

Link to Abstract

Is khat use disorder a valid diagnostic entity?

The construct of a substance use disorder syndrome for khat using DSM-5 criteria appears valid and performs in a manner consistent with other substances of dependence.

Link to Abstract