Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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July 2016

Are take-home naloxone programmes effective? Systematic review utilizing application of the Bradford Hill criteria

Take-home naloxone reduces overdose mortality and has a low rate of adverse events.

Link to Abstract

Gabapentin misuse, abuse and diversion: a systematic review

The anti-epileptic and analgesic medication gabapentin appears to be misused in many countries.

Link to Abstract

A successful high-visibility enforcement intervention targeting underage drinking drivers

A high-visibility enforcement campaign targeting underage drink driving appeared to reduce both underage driving after drinking among US college students and drink driving at any age.

Link to Abstract

Sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood

Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and young adulthood appears to be mostly influenced by gender-specific shared environmental factors (e.g. rearing influences, shared friends).

Link to Abstract

Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

In the USA, recruits for randomized controlled trials of substance use disorder treatments tend to have more years of education and a greater likelihood of full-time work compared with people receiving care in routine clinical settings.

Link to Abstract

Estimating under- and over-reporting of drinking in national surveys of alcohol consumption: identification of consistent biases across four English-speaking countries

People who describe themselves as less frequent drinkers appear to under-report their drinking frequency substantially.

Link to Abstract

Spatial patterns of arrests, police assault and addiction treatment center locations in Tijuana, Mexico

In Mexico, people who inject drugs are at greater risk of police violence if they consider themselves in need of addiction treatment, and their police interactions are more frequent around treatment centers.

Link to Abstract

Clinical outcomes of patients infected with HIV through use of injected drugs compared to patients infected through sexual transmission: late presentation, delayed anti-retroviral treatment and higher mortality

In Spain, patients who acquire HIV infection through use of injected drugs appear to have a higher risk of late presentation, delayed initiation of anti-retroviral treatment and progression to AIDS and death than patients who acquire HIV by sexual transmission.

Link to Abstract

Differences in polysubstance use patterns and drug-related outcomes between people who inject drugs receiving and not receiving opioid substitution therapies

People who inject drugs and also use a broad range of substances have more injecting-related injuries and poorer health outcomes and are more likely to engage in criminal activity than other groups of people who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract

Who thinks what about e-cigarette regulation? A content analysis of UK newspapers

In the UK between 2013 and 2014, governments and tobacco control advocates frequently commented on e-cigs in UK-wide and Scottish national newspapers, most supporting e-cig regulation, but not agreeing on e-cig use in enclosed public spaces.

Link to Abstract

The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial

Proactive telephone counselling is more effective than a self-help booklet in achieving prolonged smoking abstinence for 12 months.

Link to Abstract

A comparison of neuropsychiatric adverse events during early treatment with varenicline or a nicotine patch

In US Veterans Administration patients using varenicline from smoking cessation prior to implementation of a ‘black box’ warning about neuropsychiatric side effects, the drug was not associated with an increase in hospitalization for mental health disorders compared with use of nicotine patches.

Link to Abstract

Does cigarette reduction while using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit attempt predict abstinence following quit date?

Smoking reduction prior to a target quit date while on a smoking cessation medication may only predict subsequent abstinence when smokers are consciously attempting to reduce.

Link to Abstract

Governmental standard drink definitions and low-risk alcohol consumption guidelines in 37 countries

Drinking guidelines and ‘standard drink’ definitions are inconsistent across the globe. The size of a standard drink varies by as much as 250% from country to country.

Link to Abstract