Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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May 2016

Validity of the alcohol purchase task: a meta-analysis

The Alcohol Purchase Task appears to have good construct validity but limited incremental utility in estimating risk for alcohol problems.

Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of motivational interviewing to reduce illicit drug use in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Motivational interviewing has not been found thus far to reduce adolescent use of illicit drugs.

Link to Abstract

Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of alcohol screening with brief interventions for patients in emergency care settings

Brief interventions in emergency care settings appear to have very small effects on alcohol consumption. More intensive interventions show no clear benefit over briefer ones.

Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of motivational intervention with significant others for patients with alcohol misuse

It appears to be cost-effective to incorporate a patient’s partner into a patient's motivational intervention for alcohol misuse.

Link to Abstract

A microsimulation cost–utility analysis of alcohol screening and brief intervention to reduce heavy alcohol consumption in Canada

In Canada, screening and brief intervention via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) to reduce heavy alcohol consumption appears to be cost-effective at AUDIT thresholds of 8 and lower and AUDIT-C thresholds of 7 and lower.

Link to Abstract

Trajectories of drinking urges and the initiation of abstinence during cognitive–behavioral alcohol treatment

Drinking urges during out-patient behavioral treatment for alcohol use disorders may be maintained in part by alcohol consumption. Initiating abstinence is associated with reductions in drinking urges immediately and then more gradually over time.

Link to Abstract

Assessing elements of a family approach to reduce adolescent drinking frequency: parent–adolescent relationship, knowledge management and keeping secrets

Adolescent alcohol use appears to increase as parental control decreases and child secrecy increases.

Link to Abstract

Malmö Treatment Referral and Intervention Study (MATRIS) -- effective referral from syringe exchange to treatment for heroin dependence: a pilot randomized controlled trial

A pilot randomized controlled trial in a syringe exchange programme did not indicate effectiveness of a strength-based case management intervention to improve attendance for treatment over referral alone.

Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of Scotland's National Naloxone Programme for reducing opioid-related deaths: a before (2006–10) versus after (2011–13) comparison

Scotland's National Naloxone Programme has been associated with a 36% reduction in opioid-related deaths in the 4 weeks following prison release.

Link to Abstract

Medical treatments for opioid use disorder in Iran: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of buprenorphine/naloxone and naltrexone maintenance treatment

Among patients with opioid use disorder in Iran, sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone led to a greater number of opioid-negative urine tests and better treatment retention than oral naltrexone, but did not yield significantly greater initial abstinence duration or proportions with sustained abstinence.

Link to Abstract

Financial incentives to promote extended smoking abstinence in opioid-maintained patients: a randomized trial

Among opioid-maintained smokers receiving an initial period of daily contingent incentives, contingent reinforcement appears to be more effective at extending smoking abstinence than noncontingent reinforcement over 10 weeks.

Link to Abstract

Association between Trajectories of Buprenorphine Treatment and Emergency Department and In-patient Utilization

Patients who persistently use buprenorphine for 12 months have a lower risk of all-cause hospitalizations/emergency department visits.

Link to Abstract

Childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and 3-year persistence of adult alcohol and nicotine dependence in a national sample

The association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol and nicotine dependence may be mediated in part by development of personality disorders.

Link to Abstract

When psychopathology matters most: identifying sensitive periods when within-person changes in conduct, affective and anxiety problems are associated with male adolescent substance use

Among adolescent boys, increased conduct disorder problems appear to increase the likelihood of later substance use, and increased alcohol use appears to increase the likelihood of later anxiety problems. Developmental turning points appear to be particularly sensitive periods for developing these patterns.

Link to Abstract