Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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April 2016

Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban) and varenicline (Chantix, Champix) appear to be effective and tolerable stop-smoking aids for adults with serious mental illnesses.

Link to Abstract

Temporal changes in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity in Australia

In Australia between 2001 and 2010, alcohol-attributable death and illness increased without a corresponding increase in per capita alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a potential measure in substance use treatment–outcome studies

Because respiratory sinus arrhythmia appears to measure self-regulatory capacity, it may be a useful measure of underlying mechanisms in substance use disorder treatment studies.

Link to Abstract

Population trends in smoking, alcohol use and primary prevention variables among adolescents in Iceland, 1997–2014

Substance use among adolescents in Iceland has declined steadily from 1997 to 2014, while primary prevention factors for substance use (e.g., parental monitoring, participation in organized sports) have increased in strength.

Link to Abstract

Relation between age of first drinking and mental health and alcohol and drug disorders in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year cohort study

The associations between age of first drinking and later alcohol/drug disorders appear to be partly accounted for by factors related to characteristics of the individual and family during childhood.

Link to Abstract

Qualitative evaluation of a novel contingency management-related intervention for patients receiving supervised injectable opioid treatment

A ‘qualitative realist’ evaluation of an intervention for complex substance use disorders suggests that the programmes need to: have stakeholder input implement consistent eligibility criteria, rules and processes; and be introduced into stable treatment settings where relationships are trusting and patients and staff feel secure.

Link to Abstract

The burden of disease attributable to cannabis use in Canada in 2012

The cannabis-attributable burden of disease in Canada in 2012 included 55,813 years of life lost due to disability, caused mainly by cannabis use disorders.

Link to Abstract

Long-term outcomes after randomization to buprenorphine/naloxone versus methadone in a multi-site trial

There are few differences in long-term outcomes between buprenorphine and methadone treatment for opioid dependence. Treatment with each medication is associated with a strong reduction in illicit opioid use.

Link to Abstract

Advancing patient-centered care for structurally vulnerable drug-using populations: a qualitative study of the perspectives of people who use drugs regarding the potential integration of harm reduction interventions into hospitals

Hospital-based harm reduction interventions for people who use drugs can potentially improve hospital care retention, promote patient-centered care and reduce adverse health outcomes among people who use drugs.

Link to Abstract

Measuring benefits of opioid misuse treatment for economic evaluation: health-related quality of life of opioid-dependent individuals and their spouses as assessed by a sample of the US population

US public opinion holds that injection opioid misuse reduces quality of life more than prescription drug misuse, and methadone therapy reduces quality of life more than buprenorphine therapy.

Link to Abstract

Integrating smoking cessation into routine care in hospitals—a randomized controlled trial

A pharmacist-led multi-component stop-smoking intervention during hospital stay did not improve abstinence rates at 6 or 12 months compared with routine hospital care.

Link to Abstract

Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan

Approximately half of 8240 respondents in a Japanese internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products and 6.6% had tried them. Of that 6.6%, more than 70% used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, which are unregulated in Japan, and 33% used nicotine e-cigarettes, which are prohibited.

Link to Abstract

Characteristics of users and usage of different types of electronic cigarettes: findings from an online survey

In an online survey of e-cigarette users, newer-generation e-cigarettes were perceived as more satisfactory and more effective for refraining from smoking than older models.

Link to Abstract

The effect of potential electronic nicotine delivery system regulations on nicotine product selection

Higher taxes, a proposed US FDA warning label for e-cigarettes, and a more severe warning label may discourage adult smokers from switching from cigarettes to e-cigarettes.

Link to Abstract