Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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August 2017

Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics

The total number of drinks consumed in a risky single occasion drinking session appears to rise independently with the duration of the event, the number of drinking locations, and the number of different types of beverage consumed.

Link to Abstract

Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality: a cohort study in 19 002 men and women attending alcohol treatment

Alcohol-dependent men and women have significantly higher risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic (body-related) diseases relative to the general population.

Link to Abstract

Dimensional personality traits and alcohol treatment outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Among patients receiving treatment for an alcohol use disorder, those who relapse during follow-up have higher novelty-seeking behaviour, lower persistence, lower reward dependence and lower cooperativeness than those who do not relapse.

Link to Abstract

Disparities in pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in the context of universal health care: a Swedish register study

There appear to be socio-economic disparities in the receipt of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in Sweden.

Link to Abstract

A National Swedish Longitudinal Twin-Sibling Study of alcohol use disorders among males

There appear to be two major genetic factors contributing to the risk of alcohol use disorder among Swedish men: one beginning at ages 18–25 and another, of less impact, beginning at ages 26–33.

Link to Abstract

Does exposure to opioid substitution treatment in prison reduce the risk of death after release? A national prospective observational study in England

In an English national study, prison-based opioid substitution therapy was associated with a 75% reduction in all-cause mortality and an 85% reduction in fatal drug-related poisoning in the first month after prison release.

Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions to reduce drug use among adults in a low-income urban emergency department: the HealthiER You study

An emergency department-based motivational brief intervention, delivered by a therapist and guided by computer, appears to reduce drug use among adults seeking emergency department care.

Link to Abstract

High risk of overdose death following release from prison: variations in mortality during a 15-year observation period

There is an elevated risk of death from drug overdose among individuals released from Norwegian prisons, peaking in the first week, and greatest for those having served 3–12 months.

Link to Abstract

Engagement in HIV care and its correlates among people who inject drugs in St Petersburg, Russian Federation and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

The two steps in treatment cascade for HIV-positive PWID in St Petersburg, RF and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia requiring greatest improvement are retention in regular care and initiation of HAART.

Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for alcohol and drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary health care in Chile

It is not clear whether a brief intervention associated with the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test is more effective than an informational pamphlet in reducing alcohol and illicit substance consumption in non-treatment-seeking, primary care users with moderate risk.

Link to Abstract

Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial

Extending cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking.

Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of extended release naltrexone to prevent relapse among criminal justice-involved individuals with a history of opioid use disorder

While extended-release naltrexone appears to increase both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective due to the high price of injections.

Link to Abstract

Epidemiology of HIV and hepatitis C infection among women who inject drugs in Northeast India: a respondent-driven sampling study

Women who inject drugs in Northeast India have a high HIV prevalence, which was more than double their hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence, an opposite pattern than is observed typically among men who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract

Self-reported substance use in Iraq: findings from the Iraqi National Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use, 2014

Psychoactive drug use is generally low in Iraq, tobacco being highest at an estimated 23.2%. Iraqi women report significantly less substance use than Iraqi men. Discrepancy between self-report and ‘knowing someone who uses a substance’ suggests under-reporting.

Link to Abstract

Alcohol use from adolescence through early adulthood: an assessment of measurement invariance by age and gender

Studies that do not account for the effects of gender and age on the measurement of alcohol use may be statistically biased.

Link to Abstract