Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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June 2017

Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review

Existing economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions lack information on one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context.

Link to Abstract

Effects of increased alcohol availability during adolescence on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: a natural experiment

In Sweden exposure to increased alcohol availability during adolescence appears to be associated with an increased risk of receiving a disability pension in later life.

Link to Abstract

The relationship between different dimensions of alcohol use and the burden of disease—an update

Research since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more than one dimension of use needs to be considered.

Link to Abstract

A preliminary randomized controlled trial of contingency management for alcohol use reduction using a transdermal alcohol sensor

Cash incentives linked to a transdermal alcohol sensor can reduce heavy alcohol consumption while the incentives are in operation.

Link to Abstract

Passengers at risk: a multi-level analysis of the decision to travel with a drunk driver

In Chile, men are at higher risk than women of being a passenger with an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID).

Link to Abstract

Trajectories of heroin use: 10–11-year findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

Heroin users in Australia show widely varying patterns of use over a 10-year period and it is proving difficult to predict which users will show which pattern.

Link to Abstract

Non-buprenorphine opioid utilization among patients using buprenorphine

The use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder has increased markedly in the United States, but a substantial proportion of patients fill prescriptions for non-buprenorphine opioids during and following such treatment.

Link to Abstract

Dropout in clinical trials of pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine dependence: the role of initial abstinence

Participants in randomized controlled trials of pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine use disorder who are able to achieve a brief period of early abstinence are retained longer in the trials and are less likely to drop out overall.

Link to Abstract

Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries

Patients in Eastern Europe with opioid dependence are likely to experience additional barriers to accessing opioids over and above those experienced by non-dependent patients.

Link to Abstract

Attrition during a randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine content cigarettes as a proxy for understanding acceptability of nicotine product standards

Participant drop-out in a 35-day trial of varying levels of reduced nicotine content cigarettes was greater for cigarettes with lower nicotine content and less in smokers reporting more favourable subjective ratings of the cigarettes.

Link to Abstract

Trait and neurobiological underpinnings of negative emotion regulation in gambling disorder

Gambling disorder is associated with greater use of emotional suppression and middle frontal gyrus activation for regulating negative emotions, compared with healthy controls; both are linked with negative emotion-driven impulsivity in this disorder.

Link to Abstract

Feasibility and safety of extended-release naltrexone treatment of opioid and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics: a pilot/feasibility randomized trial

Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is feasible and safe for treatment of opioid use disorder and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics. Treatment initiation appears to be lower and retention greater for XR-NTX compared with treatment as usual.

Link to Abstract

Life-time history of insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms as correlates of alcohol, cocaine and heroin use and relapse among adults seeking substance use treatment in the United States from 1991 to 1994

There is evidence of an adverse association between substance use and sleep disturbance, which includes higher frequency of all substance use before substance misuse treatment and higher rates of cocaine use after a treatment episode.

Link to Abstract