Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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May 2017

Understanding the alcohol harm paradox: an analysis of sex- and condition-specific hospital admissions by socio-economic group for alcohol-associated conditions in England

In England, socio-economic differences in harmful drinking patterns (specifically, conditions associated with dependence and intoxication) may contribute to the ‘alcohol harm paradox’, in which people of low socioeconomic status have higher levels of alcohol-related ill health than people of higher status despite drinking the same amounts of alcohol.

Link to Abstract

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between poor oral health and substance abuse

Dental patients with substance use disorders have more tooth decay and periodontal disease than the general population, but are less likely to receive dental care.

Link to Abstract

Positive and negative affectivity as risk factors for heavy drinking in the second half of life: a prospective cohort study

Norwegian adults aged 40–80 years with a high tendency to experience negative emotions are at greater risk of heavy drinking approximately 5 years later than those with a low tendency to experience negative emotions.

Link to Abstract

Adolescent drinking—a touch of social class?

Adolescent drinking in Norway appears to be related inversely to parents' social standing. The elevated risk of low socio-economic status vanishes when general parenting, alcohol-related parental permissiveness and parents' drinking are accounted for.

Link to Abstract

Identifying in-patient costs attributable to the clinical sequelae and comorbidities of alcoholic liver disease in a national hospital database

Costs of hospital care for patients with alcoholic liver disease are higher than those for patients with other alcohol-related diagnoses.

Link to Abstract

Effects of incentives for naltrexone adherence on opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults

Incentives for naltrexone adherence increase opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults, an effect that appears to be caused by the increased naltrexone adherence produced by the incentives.

Link to Abstract

Receipt of addiction treatment as a consequence of a brief intervention for drug use in primary care: a randomized trial

Brief intervention delivered in primary care for screen-identified drug use does not appear to increase addiction treatment receipt significantly; a motivational interviewing approach appears to be counterproductive.

Link to Abstract

Adolescents at risk for drug abuse: a 3-year dual-process analysis

Drug-relevant memory associations play a key role in drug use behavior in at-risk youth.

Link to Abstract

The costs of crime during and after publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorders: a population-level study for the state of California

In publicly funded drug treatment facilities in California, USA, engagement in treatment for opioid use disorders is associated with lower costs of crime in the 6 months following initiation of treatment, and the economic benefits are far greater for individuals receiving time-unlimited treatment.

Link to Abstract

Neural responses to negative outcomes predict success in community-based substance use treatment

An elevated response to unexpected negative feedback in parts of the brain (specifically bilateral amygdala and anterior hippocampus) appears to predict relapse to substance use in people attending community-based treatment.

Link to Abstract

Nationwide access to an internet-based contingency management intervention to promote smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

A contingency management/financial incentive program delivered via the internet improved short-term smoking abstinence rates compared with an internet program without the incentives.

Link to Abstract

Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use

The likelihood that a non-daily tobacco smoker in the US will remain a stable non-daily smoker or transition to either daily use or non-use is associated with socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco.

Link to Abstract

Trends in serious quit attempts in the United States, 2009–14

The proportion of US smokers making a serious quit attempt has increased since 2009, due to an upward trend since 2011. The 2014 serious quit attempt rate was 55.0%.

Link to Abstract

A SMART data analysis method for constructing adaptive treatment strategies for substance use disorders

Q-learning (a new data analysis method) can inform the development of more cost-effective, adaptive treatment strategies for treating substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract