Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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Supplement 1 2019

Methods of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, wave 1 (2016)

The International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey design and data collection methods enable prospective analysis of the use of cigarettes and nicotine vaping products in jurisdictions with different regulatory policies.

Link to Abstract

A new classification system for describing concurrent use of nicotine vaping products alongside cigarettes (so‐called ‘dual use’): findings from the ITC‐4 Country Smoking and Vaping wave 1 Survey

Among daily nicotine users in Australia, Canada, England, and the US, dual daily users (who smoke and vape concurrently) should be treated as a distinct group when studying relationships between smoking and vaping.

Link to Abstract

Characteristics of nicotine vaping products used by participants in the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Refillable nicotine vaping products were the most common type of nicotine vaping product used by daily vapers in Australia, Canada, England and the US in 2016.

Link to Abstract

Reasons for regular vaping and for its discontinuation among smokers and recent ex‐smokers: findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Regular users of nicotine vaping products are motivated by perceived benefits, especially for reducing or quitting smoking; discontinuation is motivated by perceived lack of those benefits.

Link to Abstract

Predicting vaping uptake, vaping frequency and ongoing vaping among daily smokers using longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Surveys

Among daily smokers, amount smoked and intention to quit smoking appear to predict subsequent vaping uptake. Vaping frequency at baseline appears to predict current vaping at follow‐up.

Link to Abstract

Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Compared with former smokers who do not vape, former smokers who vape daily report higher levels of cigarette smoking dependence but more confidence to stay quit and similar strength urges to smoke.

Link to Abstract

A modeling approach to gauging the effects of nicotine vaping product use on cessation from cigarettes: what do we know, what do we need to know?

Nicotine vaping product use in the US is projected to have a net positive impact on population health.

Link to Abstract

Discussions between health professionals and smokers about nicotine vaping products: results from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Discussions in Australia, Canada, England, and the US between smokers and health professionals about nicotine vaping products appear to be infrequent, regardless of the regulatory environment.

Link to Abstract

Rules about smoking and vaping in the home: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Among current and former smokers in 2016 in Canada, the US, England and Australia, 37.4% allowed smoking in the home while 60.4% of current vapers allowed in-home vaping.

Link to Abstract

Differences in norms towards the use of nicotine vaping products among adult smokers, former smokers and nicotine vaping product users: cross‐sectional findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Norms towards vaping appear to vary among countries with different sales and advertising regulations.

Link to Abstract

Prices, use restrictions and electronic cigarette use—evidence from wave 1 (2016) US data of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Higher prices for nicotine vaping products (NVPs) and vaping restrictions in public places are associated with less NVP use and less concurrent use of vaping and smoking.

Link to Abstract

The impact of vaping and regulatory environment on cigarette demand: behavioral economic perspective across four countries

In a hypothetical purchase task, non‐daily smokers showed lower price elasticity if they used e‐cigarettes than if they did not.

Link to Abstract

Exposure to and perceptions of health warning labels on nicotine vaping products: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

It appears that noticing health warnings on e-cigarette packaging is no more likely in England where the warnings are mandatory than in Australia, Canada and the US where they are not.

Link to Abstract