Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor-in-Chief, Robert West

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. The article titles are in bold and each key finding is below the article title.  Use the filters below to isolate key findings for each issue or search for a particular topic across all of this year's issues.

January 2017

Social cognition in alcohol use disorder: a meta-analysis

Alcohol use disorder appears to be associated with significant impairment in facial emotion recognition and theory of mind (the capacity to attribute mental states to oneself and others).

Link to Abstract
Steep delay discounting and addictive behavior: a meta-analysis of continuous associations

Delayed reward discounting (preferring smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) is more prevalent in people with a range of addictive disorders.

Link to Abstract
Effects of sex and alcohol use on antiretroviral therapy outcomes in Botswana: a cohort study

Alcohol use among HIV-infected adults in Botswana appears to worsen HIV treatment outcomes.

Link to Abstract
High-intensity drinking by underage young adults in the United States

Young adult underage binge drinking, high-intensity drinking, and intoxication are relatively common in the USA. Four-year college students and young adults living away from parents are more likely to engage in high-intensity drinking than their peers.

Link to Abstract
Is online information on ecstasy tablet content safe?

Pillreports and Partyflock website reports tend to overestimate MDMA concentrations in ecstasy tablets. Also, 15% of reports omit the concentration spread, fail to report additional illegal or dangerous substances, or underestimate MDMA concentration by >40 mg.

Link to Abstract
Prescription opioid poisoning across urban and rural areas: identifying vulnerable groups and geographic areas

In California USA from 2001-11, hospital discharge rates for prescription opioid poisoning spread from rural and suburban/exurban hot-spots to urban areas, suggesting spatial contagion.

Link to Abstract
The genetic basis of the comorbidity between cannabis use and major depression

There appears to be a significant genetic overlap between cannabis use and major depression among Mexican Americans, localized to a region on chromosome 11q23 that has been linked previously to these phenotypes.

Link to Abstract
Effects of accountable care and payment reform on substance use disorder treatment: evidence from the initial 3 years of the alternative quality contract

A global payment and accountable care model introduced in Massachusetts, USA did not greatly change substance use disorder service use during the first 3 years following implementation.

Link to Abstract
Motivational, reduction and usual care interventions for smokers who are not ready to quit: a randomized controlled trial

Among adult smokers not ready to quit, telephone interventions designed to motivate quitting or smoking reduction did not increase the odds of making a quit attempt at 6 months. The motivational intervention appeared to increase abstinence at 6 months and did increase it at 12 months. The smoking-reduction intervention did not increase abstinence at 6 months but appeared to increase it at 12 months.

Link to Abstract
Reduced nicotine content cigarettes and use of alternative nicotine products: exploratory trial

The offer of, and instructions to use, reduced nicotine content cigarettes may lead to greater use of alternative tobacco/nicotine products compared with continued use of normal nicotine cigarettes and also reductions in smoking rates.

Link to Abstract
Development of a proto-typology of opiate overdose onset

There are different types of opiate overdose onset, pointing to the need for a range of interventions, including strategies for self-administration of naloxone.

Link to Abstract

February 2017

Effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programme for people who inject drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programmes appear to be effective for reducing risk behaviours among people who inject drugs, although their effect on HIV/HCV prevalence and economic outcomes is unclear.

Link to Abstract
The role of birth cohorts in long-term trends in liver cirrhosis mortality across eight European countries

The inclusion of the birth cohort dimension improves the understanding of alcohol-attributable mortality trends in Europe.

Link to Abstract
The effect of liquor licensing restrictions on assault: a quasi-experimental study in Sydney, Australia

Restrictions on the availability of alcohol appear to reduce the incidence of assault.

Link to Abstract
A momentary exposures analysis of proximity to alcohol outlets and risk for assault

People in areas with greater densities of bars, restaurants and beer stores appear to be at increased risk for non-gun assault at these outlets' times of heaviest patronage.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of cannabis use disorder: risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcomes

Evidence suggests three distinguishable types of trajectory for development of cannabis use disorder starting in early teens: (1) persistent increasing risk; (2) maturing out, with increasing risk then decreasing risk; and (3) stable low risk.

Link to Abstract
What happened to the HIV epidemic among non-injecting drug users in New York City?

HIV prevalence has declined in New York City (NYC), USA and a high percentage of HIV-positive non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) are receiving antiretroviral treatment, suggesting an end to the HIV epidemic among NIDUs in NYC.

Link to Abstract
Evaluating the impact of a national naloxone programme on ambulance attendance at overdose incidents: a controlled time-series analysis

The supply of take-home naloxone kits through a national programme in Scotland was not associated clearly with a decrease in ambulance attendance at opioid-related overdose incidents in the 4-year period after it was implemented in April 2011.

Link to Abstract
Physician attitudes and experiences with Maryland's prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP)

In a survey of Maryland, USA physicians, most participants reported that prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) improved their opioid prescribing by decreasing prescription amounts and increasing their comfort with prescribing opioids.

Link to Abstract
Impact of laws restricting the sale of tobacco to minors on adolescent smoking and perceived obtainability of cigarettes: an intervention-control pre-post study of 19 European Union countries

Laws prohibiting the sales of tobacco to minors in Europe do not appear to be associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking rates, but they lower the perceived obtainability of cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
What a difference a day makes: differences in initial abstinence response during a smoking cessation attempt

More than one-third of people quitting smoking report extreme craving, negative affective or hunger responses on their quit day. These withdrawal symptom patterns are related to baseline characteristics, treatment and cessation success.

Link to Abstract
Do never smokers make up an increasing share of snus users as cigarette smoking declines? Changes in smoking status among male snus users in Norway 2003-15

Despite a decline in smoking prevalence, the majority of snus users in Norway are still former or current smokers.

Link to Abstract
Impact of smoking reduced nicotine content cigarettes on sensitivity to cigarette price: further results from a multi-site clinical trial

In current smokers, a reduction in nicotine content may reduce cigarette consumption, reduce the reinforcement value of cigarettes and increase cessation if reduced nicotine content cigarettes are the only cigarette available for purchase.

Link to Abstract
The neurobiology of addiction: the perspective from magnetic resonance imaging present and future

The magnetic resonance imaging literature provides a limited but convergent picture of the neurobiology of addiction as global changes to brain structure and functional disturbances to frontostriatal circuitry, accompanied by changes in anterior white matter.

Link to Abstract

March 2017

Cigarette smoking and depression comorbidity: systematic review and proposed theoretical model

A new application of incentive learning theory posits that depressed smokers experience greater increases in the expected value of smoking in the face three motivational states: low positive affect, high negative affect and cognitive impairment.

Link to Abstract
Tincture of opium for treating opioid dependence: a systematic review of safety and efficacy

Given the current evidence, it isn't possible to make conclusive recommendations about the safety and efficacy of opium tincture for treating opioid dependence.

Link to Abstract
Drinking with mixed-gender groups is associated with heavy weekend drinking among young adults

Young adults report consuming more drinks per hour when drinking with mixed-gender groups than with same-gender groups.

Link to Abstract
Acute alcohol effects on set-shifting and its moderation by baseline individual differences: a latent variable analysis

Practising tasks before drinking moderates the acute effects of alcohol on the ability to switch between tasks.

Link to Abstract
Patient-centered methadone treatment: a randomized clinical trial

Patient-centered methadone treatment (with optional counseling and with the counselor not serving as the treatment program disciplinarian) does not appear to be more effective than methadone treatment-as-usual.

Link to Abstract
Pharmaceutical sales of pseudoephedrine: the impact of electronic tracking systems on methamphetamine crime incidents

Electronic tracking systems can reduce people's capacity to produce methamphetamine domestically, but seem unlikely to affect methamphetamine possession, distribution and importation.

Link to Abstract
Assessment of rates of recanting and hair testing as a biological measure of drug use in a general population sample of young people

Hair analysis provides an unreliable marker of substance use in general population samples. People who report more frequent substance use before age 18 are less likely to later deny previous substance use at age 18 than people who report occasional use.

Link to Abstract
Drug-caused deaths in Australian medical practitioners and health-care professionals

Between 2003 and 2013, Australian health-care professionals averaged 37 deaths per year attributed to drug toxicity, with a mortality rate of nearly five deaths per 1000 employed HCPs.

Link to Abstract
Child maltreatment and cannabis use in young adulthood: a birth cohort study

Children in Australia documented as having been maltreated are more likely to use cannabis 1) before 17, 2) as an adult, and 3) daily and meet DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence.

Link to Abstract
Randomized controlled pilot trial of naloxone-on-release to prevent post-prison opioid overdose deaths

Large randomized trials of naloxone to prevent opioid deaths are feasible with prison populations. Giving prisoners take-home emergency naloxone prior to release may prevent heroin overdose deaths among ex-prisoners and the wider population.

Link to Abstract
Demographic trends among older cannabis users in the United States, 2006-13

The prevalence of cannabis use has increased significantly in recent years among US adults aged ≥ 50 years.

Link to Abstract
The effects of tobacco smoking on age of onset of psychosis and psychotic symptoms in a first-episode psychosis population

Smokers do not appear to have a significantly earlier age of psychosis onset than non-smokers after taking into account cannabis use and gender.

Link to Abstract
A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype

The Healthy School and Drugs programme adapted for secondary special education in the Netherlands lacked clear evidence for effects on all outcomes.

Link to Abstract

April 2017

Alcohol use disorder and divorce: evidence for a genetic correlation in a population-based Swedish sample

Divorce and alcohol use disorder are correlated strongly in the Swedish population, and the heritability of divorce is consistent with previous studies.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol use among fatally injured victims in Sao Paulo, Brazil: bridging the gap between research and health services in developing countries

Nearly one-third of fatal injuries in Sao Paulo between June 2014 and December 2015 were alcohol-related, with traffic accidents showing a greater association with alcohol use than other injuries.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol consumption during adolescence is associated with reduced grey matter volumes

Excessive alcohol use during adolescence appears to be associated with an abnormal development of the brain grey matter. Structural changes in the insula of alcohol users may reflect reduced sensitivity to alcohol's negative subjective effects.

Link to Abstract
Concurrent polysubstance use in a longitudinal study of US youth: associations with sexual orientation

Sexual minority youth in the US appear to be at disproportionate risk for concurrent past-year polysubstance use compared with their same-gender, completely heterosexual youth.

Link to Abstract
Fatal acute poisonings in Australian children (2003-13)

In Australia between 2003 and 2013 there were on average eight acute poisoning deaths in children each year, most commonly involving prescription opioids and adolescents, with a downward trend in mortality since 2003.

Link to Abstract
Purity, adulteration and price of drugs bought on-line versus off-line in the Netherlands

Dutch drug users increasingly purchase drugs on-line, especially new psychoactive substances. Purity and adulteration do not vary considerably between drugs purchased on-line and off-line for most substances, but on-line prices are mostly higher than off-line prices.

Link to Abstract
Childhood cognitive ability and smoking initiation, relapse and cessation throughout adulthood: evidence from two British cohort studies

Lower cognitive ability, measured in childhood before smoking is initiated, appears to predict a higher likelihood of taking up smoking and a lower likelihood of quitting in adulthood. Educational attainment appears to mediate this effect.

Link to Abstract
Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs

Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking data, health warnings appear to be more noticeable on 'plain' cigarette packs than branded packs.

Link to Abstract
How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit

Text-messaging programs for smoking cessation appear to work by promoting improvements in the psychosocial processes related to quitting rather than through the use of additional smoking cessation services.

Link to Abstract
Cannabis use during treatment for alcohol use disorders predicts alcohol treatment outcomes

People who use cannabis while undergoing treatment for an alcohol use disorder have fewer days of alcohol abstinence at the end of treatment compared with non-cannabis users; however, this relationship is present only among those who use cannabis once or twice per month.

Link to Abstract
Testing bidirectional associations among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: a daily diary study

There appear to be reciprocal relationships among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: greater daytime use of distraction, reappraisal, and problem solving predicts lower evening substance use, while higher evening substance use predicts higher next-day avoidance and reappraisal but lower next-day problem-solving.

Link to Abstract
Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa

Evidence suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between gestational age and the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome

Gestational age (pre-term, term or late term) at birth appears to be unrelated to the need for pharmacotherapy to treat neonatal abstinence syndrome in late pre-term and term infants. Treatment may tend to be given for longer in term than pre-term or late term infants.

Link to Abstract
The potential of neuroimaging for identifying predictors of adolescent alcohol use initiation and misuse

Neuroimaging data have the potential to be much better predictors of alcohol use than they currently are.

Link to Abstract

May 2017

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between poor oral health and substance abuse

Dental patients with substance use disorders have more tooth decay and periodontal disease than the general population, but are less likely to receive dental care.

Link to Abstract
Identifying in-patient costs attributable to the clinical sequelae and comorbidities of alcoholic liver disease in a national hospital database

Costs of hospital care for patients with alcoholic liver disease are higher than those for patients with other alcohol-related diagnoses.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent drinking--a touch of social class?

Adolescent drinking in Norway appears to be related inversely to parents' social standing. The elevated risk of low socio-economic status vanishes when general parenting, alcohol-related parental permissiveness and parents' drinking are accounted for.

Link to Abstract
Positive and negative affectivity as risk factors for heavy drinking in the second half of life: a prospective cohort study

Norwegian adults aged 40-80 years with a high tendency to experience negative emotions are at greater risk of heavy drinking approximately 5 years later than those with a low tendency to experience negative emotions.

Link to Abstract
Understanding the alcohol harm paradox: an analysis of sex- and condition-specific hospital admissions by socio-economic group for alcohol-associated conditions in England

In England, socio-economic differences in harmful drinking patterns (specifically, conditions associated with dependence and intoxication) may contribute to the 'alcohol harm paradox', in which people of low socioeconomic status have higher levels of alcohol-related ill health than people of higher status despite drinking the same amounts of alcohol.

Link to Abstract
Receipt of addiction treatment as a consequence of a brief intervention for drug use in primary care: a randomized trial

Brief intervention delivered in primary care for screen-identified drug use does not appear to increase addiction treatment receipt significantly; a motivational interviewing approach appears to be counterproductive.

Link to Abstract
Effects of incentives for naltrexone adherence on opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults

Incentives for naltrexone adherence increase opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults, an effect that appears to be caused by the increased naltrexone adherence produced by the incentives.

Link to Abstract
The costs of crime during and after publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorders: a population-level study for the state of California

In publicly funded drug treatment facilities in California, USA, engagement in treatment for opioid use disorders is associated with lower costs of crime in the 6 months following initiation of treatment, and the economic benefits are far greater for individuals receiving time-unlimited treatment.

Link to Abstract
Adolescents at risk for drug abuse: a 3-year dual-process analysis

Drug-relevant memory associations play a key role in drug use behavior in at-risk youth.

Link to Abstract
Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use

The likelihood that a non-daily tobacco smoker in the US will remain a stable non-daily smoker or transition to either daily use or non-use is associated with socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco.

Link to Abstract
Nationwide access to an internet-based contingency management intervention to promote smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

A contingency management/financial incentive program delivered via the internet improved short-term smoking abstinence rates compared with an internet program without the incentives.

Link to Abstract
Neural responses to negative outcomes predict success in community-based substance use treatment

An elevated response to unexpected negative feedback in parts of the brain (specifically bilateral amygdala and anterior hippocampus) appears to predict relapse to substance use in people attending community-based treatment.

Link to Abstract
Trends in serious quit attempts in the United States, 2009-14

The proportion of US smokers making a serious quit attempt has increased since 2009, due to an upward trend since 2011. The 2014 serious quit attempt rate was 55.0%.

Link to Abstract
A SMART data analysis method for constructing adaptive treatment strategies for substance use disorders

Q-learning (a new data analysis method) can inform the development of more cost-effective, adaptive treatment strategies for treating substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract

June 2017

Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review

Existing economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions lack information on one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between different dimensions of alcohol use and the burden of disease--an update

Research since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more than one dimension of use needs to be considered.

Link to Abstract
Effects of increased alcohol availability during adolescence on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: a natural experiment

In Sweden exposure to increased alcohol availability during adolescence appears to be associated with an increased risk of receiving a disability pension in later life.

Link to Abstract
Passengers at risk: a multi-level analysis of the decision to travel with a drunk driver

In Chile, men are at higher risk than women of being a passenger with an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID).

Link to Abstract
A preliminary randomized controlled trial of contingency management for alcohol use reduction using a transdermal alcohol sensor

Cash incentives linked to a transdermal alcohol sensor can reduce heavy alcohol consumption while the incentives are in operation.

Link to Abstract
Non-buprenorphine opioid utilization among patients using buprenorphine

The use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder has increased markedly in the United States, but a substantial proportion of patients fill prescriptions for non-buprenorphine opioids during and following such treatment.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of heroin use: 10-11-year findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

Heroin users in Australia show widely varying patterns of use over a 10-year period and it is proving difficult to predict which users will show which pattern.

Link to Abstract
Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries

Patients in Eastern Europe with opioid dependence are likely to experience additional barriers to accessing opioids over and above those experienced by non-dependent patients.

Link to Abstract
Dropout in clinical trials of pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine dependence: the role of initial abstinence

Participants in randomized controlled trials of pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine use disorder who are able to achieve a brief period of early abstinence are retained longer in the trials and are less likely to drop out overall.

Link to Abstract
Trait and neurobiological underpinnings of negative emotion regulation in gambling disorder

Gambling disorder is associated with greater use of emotional suppression and middle frontal gyrus activation for regulating negative emotions, compared with healthy controls; both are linked with negative emotion-driven impulsivity in this disorder.

Link to Abstract
Attrition during a randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine content cigarettes as a proxy for understanding acceptability of nicotine product standards

Participant drop-out in a 35-day trial of varying levels of reduced nicotine content cigarettes was greater for cigarettes with lower nicotine content and less in smokers reporting more favourable subjective ratings of the cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Feasibility and safety of extended-release naltrexone treatment of opioid and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics: a pilot/feasibility randomized trial

Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is feasible and safe for treatment of opioid use disorder and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics. Treatment initiation appears to be lower and retention greater for XR-NTX compared with treatment as usual.

Link to Abstract
Life-time history of insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms as correlates of alcohol, cocaine and heroin use and relapse among adults seeking substance use treatment in the United States from 1991 to 1994

There is evidence of an adverse association between substance use and sleep disturbance, which includes higher frequency of all substance use before substance misuse treatment and higher rates of cocaine use after a treatment episode.

Link to Abstract

July 2017

Modifiable parenting factors associated with adolescent alcohol misuse: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

Risk of adolescent alcohol misuse is positively associated with parental provision of alcohol, favourable parental attitudes towards alcohol use and parental drinking and is negatively associated with parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support and parental involvement.

Link to Abstract
The safety and efficacy of baclofen to reduce alcohol use in veterans with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial

Baclofen administered at 30 mg/day does not appear to be superior to placebo in increasing abstinence or in reducing alcohol use, cravings for alcohol or anxiety among people with alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of risky drinking around the time of statutory retirement: a longitudinal latent class analysis

In Finland, approximately 12% of people who reach retirement age experience a temporary increase in alcohol consumption to risky levels, while approximately 7% experience a slow decline in risky levels of alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Binge drinking and family history of alcoholism are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence

A greater degree of familial alcoholism is associated with a steeper decline in impulsive choice among adolescents who do not drink. More life-time drinks during adolescence is associated with increases in impulsive choice.

Link to Abstract
Substance use disorders and the risk of suicide mortality among men and women in the US Veterans Health Administration

Among people receiving Veterans Health Administration care in the US, current substance use disorders (SUDs) signal increased suicide risk, especially among women.

Link to Abstract
Volatility and change in chronic pain severity predict outcomes of treatment for prescription opioid addiction

Adults with chronic pain receiving out-patient treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NLX) for prescription opioid addiction have an elevated risk for opioid use when tapering off maintenance treatment.

Link to Abstract
Generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

The findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for substance use disorder treatment do not appear to be generalizable to target populations when the RCT samples do not reflect the target populations and there is treatment effect heterogeneity across patient subgroups.

Link to Abstract
Working memory ability and early drug use progression as predictors of adolescent substance use disorders

Adolescents with weak working memory have less control over impulsive urges, placing them at risk for later substance use disorder.

Link to Abstract
The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis

Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline (a national telephone support service for quitting smoking) but did not significantly increase the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers.

Link to Abstract
Large multi-centre pilot randomized controlled trial testing a low-cost, tailored, self-help smoking cessation text message intervention for pregnant smokers (MiQuit)

A text-messaging programme may increase cessation rates in pregnant smokers when provided alongside routine NHS cessation care.

Link to Abstract
Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness: a Danish nation-wide, prospective, register-based study...

Substance use disorders are strongly associated with risk of suicide and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness.

Link to Abstract
Intravenous midazolam-droperidol combination, droperidol or olanzapine monotherapy for methamphetamine-related acute agitation: subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial

A midazolam-droperidol combination appears to provide more rapid sedation of patients with methamphetamine-related acute agitation than droperidol or olanzapine alone.

Link to Abstract
Adjustment for survey non-representativeness using record-linkage: refined estimates of alcohol consumption by deprivation in Scotland

Using information from data linkage to adjust for non-response bias in health surveys can improve estimates of alternative harmful behaviours.

Link to Abstract
Treatment and primary prevention in people who inject drugs for chronic hepatitis C infection: is elimination possible in a high-prevalence setting?

Based on theoretical model projections, chronic hepatitis C in Greece could be eliminated in the next 4-5 years by increasing treatment to more than 16% of people who inject drugs per year combined with moderate increases in harm reduction coverage.

Link to Abstract
Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland

Incarceration and the elevated transmission risk following prison release can contribute significantly to hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract

August 2017

Dimensional personality traits and alcohol treatment outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Among patients receiving treatment for an alcohol use disorder, those who relapse during follow-up have higher novelty-seeking behaviour, lower persistence, lower reward dependence and lower cooperativeness than those who do not relapse.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality: a cohort study in 19 002 men and women attending alcohol treatment

Alcohol-dependent men and women have significantly higher risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic (body-related) diseases relative to the general population.

Link to Abstract
Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics

The total number of drinks consumed in a risky single occasion drinking session appears to rise independently with the duration of the event, the number of drinking locations, and the number of different types of beverage consumed.

Link to Abstract
A National Swedish Longitudinal Twin-Sibling Study of alcohol use disorders among males

There appear to be two major genetic factors contributing to the risk of alcohol use disorder among Swedish men: one beginning at ages 18-25 and another, of less impact, beginning at ages 26-33.

Link to Abstract
Disparities in pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in the context of universal health care: a Swedish register study

There appear to be socio-economic disparities in the receipt of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in Sweden.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions to reduce drug use among adults in a low-income urban emergency department: the HealthiER You study

An emergency department-based motivational brief intervention, delivered by a therapist and guided by computer, appears to reduce drug use among adults seeking emergency department care.

Link to Abstract
Does exposure to opioid substitution treatment in prison reduce the risk of death after release? A national prospective observational study in England

In an English national study, prison-based opioid substitution therapy was associated with a 75% reduction in all-cause mortality and an 85% reduction in fatal drug-related poisoning in the first month after prison release.

Link to Abstract
Engagement in HIV care and its correlates among people who inject drugs in St Petersburg, Russian Federation and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

The two steps in treatment cascade for HIV-positive PWID in St Petersburg, RF and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia requiring greatest improvement are retention in regular care and initiation of HAART.

Link to Abstract
High risk of overdose death following release from prison: variations in mortality during a 15-year observation period

There is an elevated risk of death from drug overdose among individuals released from Norwegian prisons, peaking in the first week, and greatest for those having served 3-12 months.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of extended release naltrexone to prevent relapse among criminal justice-involved individuals with a history of opioid use disorder

While extended-release naltrexone appears to increase both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective due to the high price of injections.

Link to Abstract
Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial

Extending cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for alcohol and drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary health care in Chile

It is not clear whether a brief intervention associated with the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test is more effective than an informational pamphlet in reducing alcohol and illicit substance consumption in non-treatment-seeking, primary care users with moderate risk.

Link to Abstract
Self-reported substance use in Iraq: findings from the Iraqi National Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use, 2014

Psychoactive drug use is generally low in Iraq, tobacco being highest at an estimated 23.2%. Iraqi women report significantly less substance use than Iraqi men. Discrepancy between self-report and 'knowing someone who uses a substance' suggests under-reporting.

Link to Abstract
Epidemiology of HIV and hepatitis C infection among women who inject drugs in Northeast India: a respondent-driven sampling study

Women who inject drugs in Northeast India have a high HIV prevalence, which was more than double their hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence, an opposite pattern than is observed typically among men who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol use from adolescence through early adulthood: an assessment of measurement invariance by age and gender

Studies that do not account for the effects of gender and age on the measurement of alcohol use may be statistically biased.

Link to Abstract

September 2017

Internet interventions for adult illicit substance users: a meta-analysis

Internet interventions can yield small but significant reduction in illicit substance use.

Link to Abstract
Life-time risk of mortality due to different levels of alcohol consumption in seven European countries: implications for low-risk drinking guidelines

If low-risk alcohol guidelines were based on an acceptable risk of one in 1000 premature deaths, maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men, and some current guidelines would need downward revision.

Link to Abstract
Coping mediates the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among out-patient clients in Project MATCH when dependence severity is high

Coping activities seem to be a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among clients with high dependence severity, but not low dependence severity.

Link to Abstract
Hospitalizations, costs and outcomes associated with heroin and prescription opioid overdoses in the United States 2001-12

Rates and costs of US hospital admissions related to heroin and prescription opioid overdose increased substantially from 2001 to 2012.

Link to Abstract
Insular and cingulate attenuation during decision making is associated with future transition to stimulant use disorder

People who transition from stimulant use to stimulant use disorder appear to show specific types of neural activity that may constitute a high-risk addiction profile.

Link to Abstract
Risk to heroin users of polydrug use of pregabalin or gabapentin

For heroin users, the combination of opioids with gabapentin or pregabalin potentially increases the risk of acute overdose death.

Link to Abstract
The economic burden of neonatal abstinence syndrome in the United States

The number of US hospital admissions involving neonatal abstinence syndrome increased more than fourfold between 2003 and 2012. In 2012, neonatal abstinence syndrome cost nearly $316 million.

Link to Abstract
Associations between childhood maltreatment and non-medical use of prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents

Maltreatment while a child is associated with an increased risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Effect of 0.5 mg versus 1 mg varenicline for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

There appears to be no difference in smoking cessation effectiveness between 1 mg and 0.5 mg varenicline, both administered twice daily for 8 weeks.

Link to Abstract
Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up

Among people who smoke, those also using an e-cigarette regularly are more likely to try to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption during the next 6 months.

Link to Abstract
The role of novelty seeking as a predictor of substance use disorder outcomes in early adulthood

The association between high novelty seeking and substance use disorders is not explained by common underlying individual factors and environmental exposures; thus, novelty seeking may play a causal role in the development of substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract
Prescription contraception use and adherence by women with substance use disorders

Women with substance use disorders are less likely to use prescription contraceptives but not less likely to adhere to them once prescribed.

Link to Abstract
Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray over first 30 minutes post-dosing: analysis of suitability for opioid overdose reversal

Concentrated naloxone nasal spray has a promising pharmacokinetic profile, with substantial bioavailability. Its early absorption time-course suggests it is suitable for emergency administration in the community.

Link to Abstract
Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: the electronic gaming motives questionnaire

The four-dimensional Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming.

Link to Abstract
Significant reductions in alcohol use after hepatitis C treatment: results from the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH cohort

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment appears to help HIV-HCV co-infected patients reduce alcohol use.

Link to Abstract

October 2017

Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women

From 1966 to 2015, approximately a quarter of newly incarcerated prisoners of both sexes across 10 countries had an alcohol use disorder, and the prevalence of a drug use disorder was at least as high in men, and higher in women.

Link to Abstract
Adolescents' exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and their alcohol use: exploring associations during a 13-year period

While Australian adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising on television reduced between 1999 and 2011, higher levels of past-month television alcohol advertising were associated with an increased likelihood of adolescents' drinking.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension in Denmark: a prospective cohort study

In Danish men aged 18-60, both alcohol abstinence and heavy consumption are associated with increased subsequent risk of unemployment and sickness absence compared with low consumption. In Danish women, abstainers have increased risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension, while binge drinkers are more likely to become unemployed subsequently.

Link to Abstract
The impact of normative perceptions on alcohol consumption in military veterans

Among US military personnel, attitudes to drinking appear to mediate the association between descriptive norms (what most people in a group think, feel, or do) and injunctions norms (what most people in a group approve of) about alcohol and subsequent level of alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Do more robust prescription drug monitoring programs reduce prescription opioid overdose?

US states that have more robust prescription drug monitoring programs (PMPs) have fewer prescription opioid overdose deaths than states with weaker PMPs.

Link to Abstract
Impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on opioid utilization among Medicare beneficiaries in 10 US States

Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are associated with reductions in opioid use among disabled and older adult Medicare beneficiaries in the United States compared with states that do not have PDMPs.

Link to Abstract
Assessing the impact of a temporary class drug order on ethylphenidate-related infections among people who inject drugs in Lothian, Scotland: an interrupted time-series analysis

The UK government's 2015 temporary class drug order on ethylphenidate was effective in reducing infections among people who inject drugs during an outbreak situation in Lothian, Scotland.

Link to Abstract
Varenicline versus nicotine patch with brief advice for smokers with substance use disorders with or without depression: effects on smoking, substance use and depressive symptoms

Varenicline appears to improve the chances of achieving at least 3 months of smoking abstinence in smokers with substance use disorders trying to stop, compared with transdermal nicotine patches, the effect being independent of history of depressive disorder.

Link to Abstract
Perceived harms and benefits of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic vaporizers among young adults in Colorado: implications for health education and research

Young adults in Colorado, USA, perceive the harms and benefits of tobacco and marijuana in terms of potency, chemical additives, addiction, combustible versus non-combustible products, and source of information.

Link to Abstract
Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: a time-series analysis of population trends in England

Between 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were associated positively with prevalence of high-risk drinking.

Link to Abstract
Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking?

Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking.

Link to Abstract
An analysis of purchase price of legal and illicit cigarettes in urban retail environments in 14 low- and middle-income countries

The median purchase price of illicit cigarettes is higher than that of legal cigarette packs in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia appear to have few or no illicit cigarettes for purchase from formal, urban retailers.

Link to Abstract
PPAR-gamma agonist pioglitazone modifies craving intensity and brain white matter integrity in patients with primary cocaine use disorder: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial

Compared with placebo, patients receiving pioglitazone show a higher likelihood of reduced cocaine craving and improved brain white matter integrity as a function of time in treatment.

Link to Abstract

November 2017

The effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol-related violence in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol: a randomized controlled trial

In Wales, UK, an Environmental Health Practitioner-led intervention in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol resulted in an increase in police recorded violence.

Link to Abstract
Familial association of abstinent remission from alcohol use disorder in first-degree relatives of alcohol-dependent treatment-seeking probands

The likelihood of abstinent remission among people with alcohol use disorder appears to be more than three times greater for individuals who are related to an abstinent proband versus those related to a proband with persistent alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
The contribution of alcohol use and other behavioural, material and social factors to socio-economic differences in alcohol-related disorders in a Swedish cohort

Socio-economic differences in alcohol use only explain a quarter of the socio-economic position differences in alcohol-related disorders in Stockholm, Sweden.

Link to Abstract
Are alcohol-related disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth decreasing?

Lesbian/gay and bisexual youth in Canada show elevated rates of alcohol use compared with heterosexual youth.

Link to Abstract
The impacts of minimum alcohol pricing on alcohol attributable morbidity in regions of British Colombia, Canada with low, medium and high mean family income

In Canada, setting a minimum price for alcohol has been associated with a reduction in alcohol attributable hospitalizations.

Link to Abstract
Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort

Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with youth with fewer depressive symptoms.

Link to Abstract
Nucleus accumbens functional connectivity at age 20 is associated with trajectory of adolescent cannabis use and predicts psychosocial functioning in young adulthood

Patterns of cannabis use frequency in US male adolescents could affect mood symptoms and educational attainment in early adulthood via altered function in neural reward circuitry.

Link to Abstract
Ready, willing, and able: the role of cannabis use opportunities in understanding adolescent cannabis use

Approaches to measuring adolescent cannabis use that account for realistic use opportunities are critical to understanding underage cannabis use. Delineation of realistic opportunities from behaviours conditioned upon such opportunities is generalizable to a range of public health issues.

Link to Abstract
Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder

Non-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults aged 26+ years.

Link to Abstract
Changes in undergraduates' marijuana, heavy alcohol and cigarette use following legalization of recreational marijuana use in Oregon

Rates of Oregon college students' marijuana use increased (relative to that of students in other states) following recreational marijuana legislation in 2015, but only for those who reported recent heavy use of alcohol.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of emergency department-initiated treatment for opioid dependence

Buprenorphine appears to be the most cost-effective treatment for people with untreated opioid addiction who visit US emergency departments.

Link to Abstract
Deriving low-risk gambling limits from longitudinal data collected in two independent Canadian studies

Longitudinal data in Canada suggest low-risk gambling thresholds of eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling.

Link to Abstract
Progress in implementation of WHO FCTC Article 14 and its guidelines: a survey of tobacco dependence treatment provision in 142 countries

Fewer than half the Parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have implemented the recommendations of Article 14 and its guidelines to promote tobacco cessation and implement effective measures to help tobacco users quit.

Link to Abstract
Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit: a randomized trial

A very brief, proactive, low-cost smoking-reduction intervention without medications for Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit appears to increase smoking abstinence.

Link to Abstract
Association between elementary school personality and high school smoking and drinking

Three personality traits (urgency, sensation-seeking and low conscientiousness), when measured in 11-year-old children, predict those children's drinking and smoking behavior individually at age 15.

Link to Abstract
A new methodological approach to adjust alcohol exposure distributions to improve the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions

A refinement of Rehm et al.'s approach to adjusting for underreporting in the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions provides more flexibility.

Link to Abstract

December 2017 – Current Issue

The experience of initiating injection drug use and its social context: a qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis

Injection drug use initiation is a dynamic process shaped by social and structural factors. Interventions should seek to modify the contexts for initiation.

Link to Abstract
Who achieves low risk drinking during alcohol treatment? An analysis of patients in three alcohol clinical trials

Low-risk drinking is achievable for some individuals as they undergo treatment for alcohol dependence.

Link to Abstract
Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of active tuberculosis in Taiwanese adults: a nation-wide population-based cohort study

In Taiwan, heavy and regular alcohol consumption are associated with higher risks of active tuberculosis.

Link to Abstract
Self-reported cognitive scales in a US National Survey: reliability, validity, and preliminary evidence for associations with alcohol and drug use

Impairments in attention and executive functioning are positively associated with substance use in the US general population.

Link to Abstract
Structural neuroimaging correlates of alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents and adults

Alcohol use severity is associated with widespread lower gray matter volume and white matter integrity in adults, and with lower gray matter volume in adolescents.

Link to Abstract
A pilot randomized clinical trial testing integrated 12-Step facilitation (iTSF) treatment for adolescent substance use disorder

A novel integrated 12-Step facilitation treatment for adolescent substance use disorder showed benefits in terms of 12-Step attendance and consequences and may provide an integrated evidence-based option compatible with existing practices.

Link to Abstract
Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state

In the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flowers, with growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flowers, both THC and cannabidiol concentration are associated with higher per-gram prices.

Link to Abstract
Associations between anhedonia and marijuana use escalation across mid-adolescence

In mid-adolescence, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure) is associated with subsequent marijuana use escalation, but marijuana use escalation does not appear to be associated with subsequent anhedonia.

Link to Abstract
Rates, characteristics and circumstances of methamphetamine-related death in Australia: a national 7-year study

Methamphetamine death rates doubled in Australia from 2009 to 2015. While toxicity was the most frequent cause, natural disease, suicide and accident comprised more than half of deaths.

Link to Abstract
Mapping medical marijuana: state laws regulating patients, product safety, supply chains and dispensaries, 2017

The US federal ban on marijuana has manifested as a patchwork of regulatory strategies not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and of unknown effectiveness.

Link to Abstract
A free ride? An analysis of the association of casino bus tours and problem gambling among older adults

Older adults who use bus tours to access Canadian gambling venues have an increased likelihood of problem gambling.

Link to Abstract
Accuracy of self-reported smoking abstinence in clinical trials of hospital-initiated smoking interventions

In the United States, high rates (40%) of recently hospitalized smokers enrolled in smoking cessation trials fail biochemical verification of their self-reported abstinence.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of intensive practice nurse counselling versus brief general practitioner advice, both combined with varenicline, for smoking cessation: a randomized pragmatic trial in primary care

In people seeking help to stop smoking, one-off brief advice from a GP appears to be as effective as several sessions of behavioural support from a practice nurse when smoking cessation medication is provided.

Link to Abstract
The association between personal income and smoking among adolescents: a study in six European cities

In the Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Finland, adolescents' personal income is related positively to smoking behaviours independent of family socio-economic status.

Link to Abstract
Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project

Stakeholders in tobacco control and smoking cessation research identified electronic cigarettes, addressing inequalities, and mental health and other substance abuse as key areas for research.

Link to Abstract