Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor-in-Chief, Robert West

Editorial Independence

The Society for the Study of Addiction respects and supports the independence of the journal’s editors and exerts no authority over them.

Farmington Consensus

ADDICTION is a founding signatory of the Farmington Consensus. The Consensus is a series of ethical publishing guidelines for addiction journals, which 26 journals have adopted to date. The Consensus was developed in 1997 at the inaugural meeting of the group now known as the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE).

International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE) Draft Ethical Guidelines

Building on the Farmington Consensus, the ISAJE Ethical Working Group has developed detailed guidelines on ethical issues. The resulting document can be found in draft form here. It endeavours to provide guidance to authors, editors and other individuals on ethical and procedural matters that affect the integrity of scientific publishing in the addiction field. We urge readers, writers, reviewers and the entire editorial network of ADDICTION to study the guidelines, to criticise them, to improve them and to use them effectively.

Ethics Editorials

  • “No switching off the camera: How Addiction will respond to infringements of ethical publishing expectation” (Addiction 96, 1391–1392). This editorial explains the journal’s policy on real or apparent breaches of ethical publishing norms by authors.
  • “Ethics Matter: To authors, editors and those we serve” (Addiction 98, 1–2). Babor’s editorial offers an introduction to the ISAJE guidelines and discusses some background issues.

Editors’ Declarations of Interest

ADDICTION has asked its senior editors to provide brief statements on any interests which might be seen as having a potential bearing on the independence of their editorial judgements. We have done so in the belief that such transparency is owed to our authors and readers, and is fair reciprocity for the requirement on declaration of interests which we put on authors, referees and book reviewers. Senior staff are expected to distance themselves from any editorial decision-making where potential conflict of interest might be deemed to exist. Similar statements from the journal’s associate editors are held in the editorial office.

Robert West

Robert West has received travel funds and hospitality from, and undertaken research and consultancy for pharmaceutical companies that manufacture or research products aimed at helping smokers to stop. These products include nicotine replacement therapies, Champix (varenicline) and Zyban (bupropion). This has led to payments to him personally and to his institution. He undertakes lectures and training in smoking cessation methods which have led to payments to him personally and to his institution. He has received research grants from medical charities and government departments. He is an unpaid advisor to the UK's National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training.  

Arpana Agrawal

Arpana Agrawal has received financial support from NIDA, NCI, NIAAA, and ABMRF/Foundation for Alcohol Research. She has no financial conflicts of interest to declare.

Rosa Alati

Rosa Alati holds a full time appointment at the Institute for Social Science Research (ISSR), University of Queensland (Australia). Rosa has never received any funding from alcohol or tobacco companies. She has received research grants from the Australia Research Council, the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, and funding from the Queensland Mental Health Commission. She is unaware of any potential conflict of interest with her role of Senior Editor on the editorial team of Addiction.

Steve Allsop

Steve Allsop has no institutional or other associations which he believes contribute to a conflict of interest. He is currently in a University post with funding from the Australian Government; he has served as a senior public servant in health in Western Australia and South Australia; he is currently Deputy Chair of the Australian National Advisory Committee on Alcohol and Drugs; chair of the WA Network of Alcohol and other Drug Agencies; Board Director Australian Drug Foundation and Member WA Ombudsman Child Death and Domestic Violence Review Panel. He has received fees and travel expenses from government and university bodies for facilitation of professional and community meetings. He has received payment and travel expenses for teaching at clinical training events, organised by professional bodies, who were supported by funds provided by pharmaceutical companies. In 2005 he received travel expenses to speak to a group of alcohol industry representatives about evidence-based prevention of alcohol problems.

Paul Aveyard

Paul Aveyard receives a personal income from work for the University of Oxford and the UK health service. He has done occasional research and consultancy with the pharmaceutical industry which, in the past three years, amounted to one day of consultancy for Pfizer on general smoking cessation unrelated to any particular product. This led to payments to his institution and to him personally.

Silke Behrendt

Silke Behrendt is currently employed at University of Southern Denmark. She has received research funding from the German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG) as well as intramural funding from Technische Universität Dresden. She has worked in research projects funded by the Lundbeck Foundation and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). She has received payment and travel expenses for teaching at clinical training events, organised by the addiction care system and the public health care system. She has never received personal fees or research funding from pharmaceutical, alcohol, e-cigarette or tobacco companies. As far as she is aware, she has no affiliations, memberships, or financial associations that constitute conflicts of interest with her editorial responsibilities for Addiction.

Virginia Berridge

Virginia Berridge is a HEFCE funded staff member of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. She holds or has held grants from the Wellcome Trust, the Economic and Social Research Council, the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the Alcohol Education and Research Council (now Alcohol Change), the Medical Research Council and NICE, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. These are charities or government funded bodies. She has no other sources of research funding and no conflicts of interest.

Ron Borland

Ron Borland is employed by the charitable organisation Cancer Council Victoria which has a charter to conduct science-driven cancer control. He receives ongoing research support from his employer.

Jonathan Bricker

Jonathan Bricker’s research is funded by the US National Institutes of Health. Dr Bricker is on the scientific advisory board for Chrono Therapeutics, Inc. He has no conflicts of interest to declare.

Arthur Brody

Arthur Brody receives research funding from the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, US Department of Veterans Affairs, and the University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program.  He does not receive any funds, directly or indirectly, from the tobacco, alcohol, cannabis or gambling industry, the addiction treatment or prevention industry, or the pharmaceutical industry.  He does not have any connection to patents, copyrights or businesses relating to the field of addiction

Jamie Brown

Jamie Brown works at University College London and is funded by CRUK. His research is predominantly funded by various research councils, UK government agencies and charities (e.g., CRUK, SSA, NPRI, NIHR and UK Department of Health). He has previously received unrestricted research funding relating to smoking cessation from the pharmaceutical company Pfizer, which manufactures smoking cessation medicines. He has never received personal fees or research funding from alcohol, e-cigarette or tobacco companies.

Luke Clark

Luke Clark is employed by the University of British Columbia, where he is the Director of the Centre for Gambling Research at UBC. The Centre is funded by the Province of British Columbia government and the British Columbia Lottery Corporation (BCLC), a Canadian Crown Corporation. He holds further research funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the British Columbia Ministry of Finance. He has received speaker travel reimbursements from the National Association of Gambling Studies (Australia), the National Center for Responsible Gaming (US), and Alberta Gambling Research Institute (Canada), and reviewer honoraria from the National Center for Responsible Gaming (US) and Gambling Research Exchange Ontario (Canada). He has not received any further direct or indirect payments from the gambling industry or groups substantially funded by gambling. He has received royalties from Cambridge Cognition Ltd. from the licensing of a neurocognitive test.

Suzanne Colby

Suzanne Colby is employed by Brown University’s Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior where she is affiliated with the Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies. Her research has been supported by grants and contracts from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NCI, NIAAA, and NIDA), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the March of Dimes. She has received honoraria and travel expenses from US National Institutes of Health for grant review and advisory consultation. She receives book royalties from Guilford Press. She has never received support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol or tobacco companies.

Tim Coleman

Since 2008, Tim Coleman has received payment from Pierre Farbre Laboratories - PFL (a French pharmaceutical company that manufactures nicotine replacement therapy) on 3 occasions. Twice payments were in recognition for contributions made to expert meetings on smoking-related topics and on the third occasion Tim spoke at a conference which was co-organised by PFL and received payment for time taken. The conference was GEST: a meeting of French smoking cessation specialists; PFL had no control over presentation content on any of these occasions. Tim has received no similar payments, either from PFL or any other organisation since 2014.

Janna Cousijn

Janna Cousijn holds a full-time appointment at the University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychology.  Her research has been supported by grants from the US National Institute of Health (NIH-NIDA); National Science Foundation, Netherlands (NWO); The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZON-MW); and intramural funding from different Dutch universities.  She has no financial conflicts of interest to declare.

Shane Darke

Shane Darke is employed solely by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, a Research Centre of the University of New South Wales. The Centre, and his position, are funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Shane does no outside consultancy work, has never received funding from alcohol, pharmaceutical or tobacco companies, and holds no stock in any such companies. He is unaware of any potential conflicts of interest in his work on the editorial team of Addiction.

Jack Darkes

Over the last 30 years Jack Darkes has received financial support from a variety of research grants funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) and the U.S. Department of Education. He has been compensated as a scientific reviewer by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) and as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Justice (The United States Sentencing Commission). He has been compensated for writing book chapters as well as publishing articles in popular magazines and internet websites. As far as he is aware, he has no affiliations, memberships, or financial associations that constitute conflicts of interest with any of his editorial responsibilities for Addiction.

Gabriele Fischer

Gabriele Fischer has been the Director of the Addiction Clinic of the Medical University Vienna since 1994. Over the past years she has been involved in many national and international activities in the addiction field. She has received travel funds and undertaken research and consultancy for pharmaceutical companies (Roche, Lannacher, Aesca, Shering Plough, Mundipharma, Nepp, Astra Zenica, Wyeth, Shire, MSD), for example in the field of Opioid maintenance therapy, and Hep C treatment in opioid maintained patients. Her clinic is specialized in the treatment of opioid dependent pregnant women. Currently, Gabriele Fischer was the principal investigator of an ongoing NIDA funded multicenter clinic trial on the comparison of buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy in opioid dependent pregnant women (RO1 DA018417). She has been involved in several EU-grants as PI. In addition, she acts as a consultant for WHO, UNO and the European parliament as well as training partner for the UNODC project “International Network of Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Center.” Gabriele Fischer has been the Chair of the CPDD International Committee since 2005. She heads a human right commission by the ombudsman institute, Austria to control for ratification of CRPD & OP-CAT, with substance use disorder being a main task.  She also serves at the scientific board of EMCDDA.

Gerhard Gmel

Over the past five years, Gerhard Gmel has received grants from governmental and cantonal sources, the Swiss National Science Foundation, and the World Health Organization. He is currently employed at Addiction Switzerland (formerly the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems), a NGO that receives donations from the Swiss general population. He is also employed at the Institute of addiction medicine, department of psychiatry at the Lausanne University Hospital. He has received fees from both institutes, the WHO, and the Swiss government for attending international meetings. He has received no direct or indirect support from the tobacco, alcohol, cannabis or gambling industry, the addiction treatment or prevention industry, or the pharmaceutical industry and holds no personal stock related to the field of addiction.

Wayne Hall (Strategic Advisor)

In the past five years, Wayne Hall has not received fees or funding of any kind from alcohol, pharmaceutical or tobacco companies. His research funding has been from the Australia Research Council and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. He received fees for preparing a literature review of the adverse health effects of cannabis from WHO (2016) and fees for reviewing evidence on the medical benefits of cannabis from: the Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia (2017-2018); the EMCDDA (2018); and the International Narcotics Control Board (2018). 

Matthew Hickman

Professor Matt Hickman holds a full-time post at Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol. Matt has never received any funding from alcohol or tobacco companies but has received unrestricted research grants as co-investigator and speaker fees from pharmaceutical companies and has received funds from charities with an interest in Addiction.  Matt has no connection to any patents, copyrights or businesses relating to the addiction field.  Matt is PI on multiple research grants held at University of Bristol which are in the field of addiction.

John Holmes

John Holmes has no institutional or other associations which he believes cause a conflict of interest. He has not received any funds (direct or indirect) from the alcohol, tobacco or gambling industries, although he has received funding related to commissioned research from Systembolaget, the Swedish government-owned alcohol retail monopoly and Alko, its Finnish equivalent. His research is funded by grants, commissions and consultancy projects from research councils, medical charities and UK or international government bodies. He has also received monies to cover travel and subsistence expenses relating to speaking engagements from public and charitable bodies. He has received personal payments from the Western Australian Government (for a report on alcohol pricing policy) and from other public and charitable bodies for peer review activities.

Keith Humphreys

Keith Humphreys receives salary support as a civil servant in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and as a Professor at Stanford University, a private non-profit educational institution.  He has received grants from government sources and from non-profit foundations, but has never received grants, honoraria or consulting fees from the tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, or gambling industries.  He has worked as a paid consultant to Aelis Farma. He has accepted travel costs and speaking fees from professional societies and reviewing fees from academic publishers. He has no institutional affiliations or society memberships which he believes could reasonably be construed as potentially constituting conflict of interest. He is open to further enquiry from any reader of the journal who might wish to question him.

Martin Y. Iguchi

Martin Y. Iguchi has conducted research since 1987 with funding from a variety of US Government sources (National Institutes of Health (NIDA, NIMH); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (CSAT; CSAP; CMHS); Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); New Jersey State Department of Health; City of Newark, New Jersey; City of Los Angeles, California (Department of Aging and Department of Cultural Affairs) and non-profit organizations (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Ford Foundation; Russell-Sage Foundation; Foundation of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey). He has also been a paid consultant to non-profit agencies working as a subcontractor to the US government. Over the past five years, he received personal fees, travel expenses and subsistence from numerous US local, state, and federal government agencies, non-profit organizations, universities and other academic organizations. Dr Iguchi receives salary support not covered by grants from his senior behavioral research scientist position at the RAND Corporation. He has also received grant support from the Pfizer Independent Grants for Learning and Change program (2012–2015).

Brian Kelly

Brian Kelly has received research funding from the United States’ National Institutes of Health. He has not received research funding or travel funds from any private organization, such as the alcohol, tobacco, or pharmaceutical industries. He has no financial conflicts of interest to declare.

Daniel Kotz

Daniel Kotz works at the Institute of General Practice at the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf and is funded by the Ministry for Innovation, Science and Research of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia ("NRW-Rückkehrprogramm"). His current research is completely funded by government agencies (including the German Federal Ministry of Health and European Union Horizon 2020). In 2009, he received an unrestricted grant from Pfizer for an investigator-initiated trial on the effectiveness of practice nurse counselling and varenicline for smoking cessation in primary care (Dutch Trial Register NTR3067). He has never received personal fees or research funding from alcohol, e-cigarette or tobacco companies.

Lynn Kozlowski

Lynn Kozlowski’s statement refers to the past five years. He has conducted research projects whose funding derived from the University at Buffalo, the State University of New York and the US National Institutes of Health. He has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

John Macleod

John Macleod has no conflicts of interest to declare. He is employed by Bristol University as Professor in Clinical Epidemiology and Primary Care.

Pia Mäkelä

Pia Mäkelä receives a personal income from a national research institute, which also finances most of her research. She has also received project funding from the NIAAA, EU, national science foundations, and governmental funding sources. She has received travel expenses and subsistence from the above mentioned funding sources and from the WHO. She has received fees for journalism and for presentations from various governmental and third sector agencies. Her project at her institute has received partial funding for survey data collection from the Finnish state alcohol retail monopoly ALKO. She has received an honorarium from the Swedish state alcohol monopoly for work regarding the monopoly.

John Marsden

In the past three years, John Marsden declares research grants from the NHS England and the English Department of Health and Social Care (prison setting maintenance medication for opioid use disorder [OUD]); the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR; randomised controlled trial of depot naltrexone for OUD, and a randomised controlled trial of acamprosate for alcohol use disorder); and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health at South London and Maudsley NHS Mental Health Foundation Trust (SLaM; randomised controlled trial of novel cognitive therapy for cocaine use disorder). He has part-time employment as Senior Academic Advisor for the Alcohol, Drugs, Tobacco and Justice Division, Health and Wellbeing Directorate, Public Health England (PHE) and is a clinical academic consultant for the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, Centre for Clinical Trials Network. JM declares an unrestricted research grant at IoPPN and SLaM from Indivior via Action on Addiction for the present study and unrestricted research grant funding at IoPPN and SLaM from Indivior for a three-year, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of injectable depot buprenorphine (from 2019). He has received honoraria and travel support for from Merc-Serono (2015; oncology medical education); Reckitt-Benckiser (2016; treatment of OUD and PCM Scientific and Martindale for the Improving Outcomes in Treatment of Opioid Dependence conference (2015-2018; contributions and chairing). He holds no stocks in any company.

Barbara McCrady

Barbara McCrady has over the past five years conducted research and program evaluation projects funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIAAA and NIDA), and Bernalillo County, NM. She has received contractual funds and royalties for the publication of books, monographs, and chapters. She also has received funds from book publishers for advice on future publishing projects. She has received personal fees and travel expenses for workshops, lectures, and consultation from various universities, health care organizations, the National Institutes of Health, The Anxiety Disorders Association of American, the German Congress on Addiction, the Society for the Study of Addictions, the Idaho Conference on Alcohol and Drug Dependency, and the National American Indian & Alaska Native Addiction Technology Transfer Center. She formerly received honoraria as a member of the Board of Directors of the Pacific Institute on Research and Evaluation, and as a member of the Research Advisory Board of the Hazelden Foundation. She serves without remuneration as a member of the International Advisory Board of SMART Recovery. She receives full salary support from the University of New Mexico. She has no institutional affiliations or society memberships that she believes could be construed as creating a conflict of interest with her responsibilities as a member of the editorial staff of Addiction.

Ann McNeill

Ann McNeill is employed by the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London and her research has been funded by government and charitable sources. She is a trustee of the Society for the Study of Addiction and the community interest company Tobacco Free Futures. She is unaware of any potential conflict of interest with her role on the Addiction editorial team.

Petra Meier

Petra Meier is a government-funded professor at the University of Sheffield. She receives funding for her scholarly activities from a wide range of grant givers, including UKRI, NIHR, government departments and health charities. She has also received funding for research by Systembolaget and Alko, both government-owned alcohol retail monopolies. She regularly carries out consultancy work for governmental bodies and for alcohol charities which leads to institutional income. She is a Scientific Advisor to the Institute of Alcohol Studies (IAS), for which she receives a personal fee. She has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock. She declares no conflicts of interest.

Michael John Morgan

From 1991–2015 Michael Morgan has held University posts funded by the UK government and has received personal grants from UK Research Councils and the Alcohol Education and Research Council. He has received no fees from industry sources.

Marcus Munafo

Marcus Munafò receives personal income from the University of Bristol. He has received research funding from various research councils and charities, which have included Action on Smoking and Health UK, the Alcohol Education and Research Council, and the European Research Advisory Board. He has also received grant funding from Pfizer. In addition, he has received nicotine replacement products from GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer for distribution to study participants. He has received consulting fees from the European Commission, Servier, the World Health Organisation, Cambridge Cognition Ltd and Jisc. He is co-director of Jericoe Ltd, which develops software for the assessment of emotion recognition ability, and chair of the Scientific Advisory Group of Evidence to Impact, a non-profit company that delivers public health interventions.

Joanne Neale

Joanne Neale is employed by King’s College London, where she is part funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London. Over the last twenty years, she has directed or worked on studies funded by Government Departments, Research Councils and Charitable Trusts. She has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

Lion Shahab

Lion Shahab is a HEFCE funded member of staff at University College London. He has received an honorarium for a talk, an unrestricted research grant and travel expenses to attend meetings and workshops from Pfizer, a pharmaceutical company that makes smoking cessation products, and has acted as paid reviewer for grant awarding bodies. Other research has been funded by the government, a community-interested company (National Centre for Smoking Cessation) and charitable sources. He has never received personal fees or research funding of any kind from alcohol, electronic cigarette or tobacco companies.

Maxine Stitzer

Maxine Stitzer has over the past five years conducted research projects whose funding sources have derived solely from federal agencies (NIDA, FDA). She has received personal fees and travel expenses from US National Institutes of Health (NIDA), State of Pennsylvania, Medical University of South Carolina and Yale University for grant review, advisory consultation and lectures. She has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

Tim Stockwell

Tim Stockwell has never received personal fees or research funding of any kind from alcohol or tobacco companies. In the early 1980s while at the Addiction Research Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London his research was briefly funded by a pharmaceutical company but he has received no funds from that source since. Over eight years ago he received travel expenses from the alcohol industry funded International Center on Alcohol Policy to attend meetings with a view to persuading them to introduce standard drink labeling and to share data on advertising expenditures. He has since decided not to attend such meetings. His research funding in the past five years has been from the following funding sources: the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, the US National Institutes of Health, the BC Ministry of Health, Health Canada, WHO and the Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia endowment fund. He has received stipends for editing journals, legal consulting, reviews for research funding bodies and consulting for agencies such as the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, WHO and the Swedish Institute for Public Health. He does not believe any of his society memberships, funding sources, investments or consultancies create any conflicts of interest in the conduct of his research, publishing or editing activities.

Christine Timko

Christine Timko receives salary support as a civil servant in the US Department of Veterans Affairs. She has received grants from US government sources and non-profit foundations, but has never received grants, honoraria, or consulting fees from manufacturers of medications for addicted patients or the tobacco or alcohol industry. She has accepted travel costs and speaking fees from professional societies. She has no institutional affiliations or society memberships which she believes could reasonably be construed as potentially constituting conflict of interest and is open to further enquiry from any reader of the journal who might wish to question her.

Jodie Trafton

Dr. Trafton is an employee of the United States federal government, paid to conduct evaluation of the addiction treatment programs of the Veterans Health Administration.

Carla Treloar

Carla Treloar is currently in a University post with funding from the Australian Commonwealth Government. She is a member of state and national advisory committees to health ministers and on advisory committees for a number of government and non-government organisations in the area of hepatitis C, injecting drug use and drug treatment. She has undertaken consultancy in unrelated areas for pharmaceutical companies that manufacture or research products for hepatitis C treatment. She has received research grants from government departments, health agencies and non-government organisations. She has received travel support from the National Canadian Research Training Program in Hepatitis C, Australasian Society of HIV Medicine, Hepatitis Australia, International Network for Hepatitis in Substance Users, Australian Illicit and Injecting Drug Users League for plenary lectures. She has received speaker fees from pharmaceutical companies involved in the manufacture of medicines to treat hepatitis C. She holds no stock in any companies.

Jalie Tucker (Strategic Advisor)

Jalie Tucker receives salary support as a fulltime faculty member at the University of Florida, Gainesville and as a part-time faculty member at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Her research has been supported by grants from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIAAA and NIDA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She has received book royalties from Guilford Publications and has accepted travel reimbursement and honoraria from universities, research centers, professional societies, health care organizations, and the NIH for presentations, reviews, and consulting on topics related to research and practice. She has never received support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol, or tobacco companies. She has no institutional or professional affiliations or society memberships that she believes could be construed as creating a conflict of interest with her responsibilities as a member of the editorial staff of Addiction.

Michael Ussher

Michael Ussher has no affiliations which he believes constitute a conflict of interest. Michael is employed by St George’s, University of London and the University of Stirling. His research has been funded by charitable foundations and by the government. He has been paid for consultancy by the UK Ministry of defence. He has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical or tobacco companies.

Robert Voas

Bob Voas Is a member of the staff of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, a non-profit corporation based in Calverton, Maryland. Funding for his research has come from NIAAA grants and from contracts with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). He has received no support from private comp, anies and has no other income related to his research activities. During the period from 1982 to 1995 he served two terms on the National Board of Directors of Mothers Against Drunk Driving. He served on the staff of NHTSA from 1969 to 1982. Over the last 40 years he has received travel expenses for presentations at technical meetings from universities and professional societies and from the NIAAA for grant reviews.

Kenneth Ward

Kenneth Ward is employed by the School of Public Health, University of Memphis. His work has been funded by several U.S. NIH Institutes including Fogarty International Center, NHLBI, NIAMS, and NIDA, as well as American Legacy Foundation, American Heart Association, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and The Urban Child Institute. He has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical or tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

Reinout Wiers

Reinout Wiers’s research is primarily paid by national grant agencies (N.W.O., National Science Foundation, Netherlands; ZON-MW, Medical Research Counsil, The Netherlands) and University money. In addition he had EU funding (FP7 AliceRap). His research is not sponsored by tobacco companies. He gave a paid talk for Lundbeck pharmaceutical company. He was co-applicant in two awarded grants from ERAB (the European Foundation for Alcohol Research), which is an independent foundation paid by the alcohol-industry that awards alcohol-related research after an independent scientific evaluation (peer reviewed), with guarantee of completely independent scientific expression (in accordance with the Dublin principles). He was also involved in the ERAB/ABMRF Underage Drinking Report (2012), which was also done in accordance with the Dublin principles.